Regenerative Cities

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A regenerative city is an urban development built on an environmentally enhancing, restorative relationship with the natural systems from which the city draws resources for its sustenance. A regenerative city maintains a symbiotic, mutually beneficial relationship with its surrounding hinterland not only by minimizing its environmental impact but by actively improving and regenerating the productive capacity of the ecosystems from which it depends. A leading author is Herbert Girardet whose 2015 book "Creating Regenerative Cities"[1] argued the need to move beyond the concept of Sustainable Cities, which he had earlier advocated in 1999[2]. Regenerative Cities are a key component of Ecocities.


  1. GIRARDET, Herbert. Creating Regenerative Cities. Routledge, U.K. 2014.
  2. GIRARDET, Herbert. Creating Sustainable Cities, Green Books, Michigan, USA, 1999.