Social-ecological resilience

From EcoliseWiki

Social-ecological resilience is the resilience of a social-ecological system: the ability of a system that integrates social and ecological elements to maintain continuity of form and/or function in the face of endogenous change. It is closely related to adaptability: the ability of human actors in a system to influence its resilience[1]

  1. Walker, B., C. S. Holling, S. R. Carpenter, and A. Kinzig. 2004. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social–ecological systems. Ecology and Society 9(2): 5. [online] URL: